Page 1 of 1


Posted: Fri May 31, 2002 10:14 am
by Richard Hull
*********************Recent Additions****************************

Maxwell Epstein - Admitted to the neutron club fusioneer membership 8/24/23
Alexey Khrushchev - Admitted to the Plasma club 7/17/23

This is a list of AMATEUR fusioneers and experimenters. Alexey Khrushchev

It can include private individuals who receive aid and
assistance which might include financial help,
equipment donation and professional scientific guidance.
i.e. students in high school or college doing a fusor
project, science fair exhibit, etc.

Plasma Club:

As of 8/20/20 the entire former plasma club listing has been purged and new rules listed below shall apply for entry into the plasma club. No exceptions!
If you feel your name has been purged, but that you meet or have met, in the past, all of the criteria listed below for inclusion, Please forward the posting URL in which you give all of the data and equipment mentioned below. If you only make 80% of the criteria, please work, accumulate and use your new 20% and re-enter a new posting with the below criteria and you will be added... private message me with the URL if you have questions. Side note** If you were in the plasma club but are now in the neutron club, do not respond as all plasma club member names are purged as you enter the neutron club. In short, a name may appear in but one achievement area at any time.

Richard Hull...

******************* New 2020 Official criteria for admission to the Plasma club. ******************************************

As this site is dedicated to fusion by the amateur scientist and not to the dabbler with a glow in a jar, we are establishing a minimum criteria for entry into the plasma club. This is to prove a desire to perform and to create, to a useful degree, a learning system related to the study of electrical, ionic plasmas. This is to show and demonstrate a desire to enter into the learning process and understanding of vacuum, high voltage and instrumentation that are normal to all fusion processes. One need not continue on to do fusion, but must pass the test of a person at least interested in and capable of demonstrating a functional system capable of studying and researching for their edification and knowledge, a useful plasma study device. We refer to this device as a "demo fusor" It is so closely bound to a real fusor, it is a virtual "work-a-like/look-a-like" system.

To be entered into the plasma club, you must have the following physical items displayed and reading in images to be considered:

1. Have some sort of suitable, "vacuum safe" vessel. (Common glass jars are not allowed. Suitable pyrex/Kimax borosilicate glass bell jars are allowed as are metal containers such as cylinders, spheres, crosses, or tees)
2. Possess a viable mechanical vacuum pump.
3. Have an electrical or electronic vacuum gauge. (common circular mechanical vacuum gauges that are purely mechanical are not suitable to satisfy this criterion.)
4. Possess or construct a fully variable, direct current high voltage supply capable of at least 3,000 volts.
5. Have and display a functioning high voltage voltmeter and current meter to measure these two electrical characteristics for the plasma under study.
6. Have a view port that will allow the user to view and take a photographic image of the plasma under study.
7. Have a centrally located, electrically insulated, grid of some rather symmetrical smooth form that will support the high voltage injected to create the plasma. (A jumble of twisted wire is not allowed)

To be accepted with the above items in hand, the applicant must have a history of postings that will allow those here to adjudicate the success of the effort. They are listed below.

1. Have reported in some minimal stream of postings the process of assembly over time.
2. To have shown in the post seeking inclusion into the plasma club, the following:
A visible image of the plasma within the grid. A full image of their system with instrumentation visible as well as the claimant in the image. (we hope you are proud enough to let us see yourself and your work all together). The applicant shall also include a statement of the pressure of the air or gas in the vacuum chamber, the voltage and current used to generate the plasma and image.

Names are not purged from this list unless you move onto the Neutron club listing.

The Plasma Club

Luc du Plessis - 1/4/2021 From the Netherlands. First plasma club member inducted under the new rules
Ed Meserve - 1/10/2021
Maciek Szymański - 1/27/2021
Aidan Roy - 3/27/21
University of Puget Sound’s Fusion Reactor Project - The team effort on this good looking rather pro-looking demo fusor. The team members names are below. 5/5/21

The students responsible for the success of the project are:
Jack Bodine
Ouyang Du
Lukas Karoly
Noah Leibnitz
Sophia Pettitt-Kenney
Daniel Scarbrough
Kiana Walter
Kobi Hall
and then there's me, Brett Klaassen
Timothy Krilov - 5/26/21
Eastside preparatory school - Group project 6/17/21

List of students who made meaningful contributions to this project over the last 6 years, alphabetical by first name:

Alex K, Andrei E, Andrew Z, Audrey W, Brandon R, Cadence C, Che L, Christopher N, Connor V, Dameli U, Egan T, Ellie H, Gavin U, Grant F, Henry H, Henry M, Henry S, Jackson F, Jake B, Jamin Z, Jan E, Karin S, Lara L, Logan P, Maggie Y, Mason K, Natalie A, Paul M, Piper H, Praveer J, Quinn B, Rory G, Ryan C, Ryan S, Sam B, Sam F-K, Sophie G, Subi L, Sydney V, Taras P, Thomas H, Thomas S, Trajan E, Trevor N, Tristan H, William B, Zach H


Dr. Charles Whitmer, Particle Physics, TerraPower
Dr. Ioan Leuca, Nuclear Physics, Rutgers University (retired)
Byron Addams - 8/10/21
Anton Isaksen 8/10/22
Luca Aldridge 8/28/22
Jeremy Sims 1/16/23
OSU school demo device (group effort) 2/13/23
Chia-Yu Yuan 5/2/23
Alexey Khrushchev 7/17/23

Neutron Club:

This usually demands that a pre-existing plasma club member indicate
that he has added deuterium and has either activated a material
or has supplied a neutron counter or bubble detector reading along with an image
of the system with counter, bubble detector or method of activation apparatus
visible beside the fusion apparatus with a full description of his
run with data taken. Obviously, no one can see neutrons being
produced, but we should see proof that you can actually record
their passage via some sort of suitable apparatus.

Basically, an applicant for the neutron club must present proof in both images
and a full technical data disclosure indicating fusion has ,indeed, taken place.
This evidence should show the detection system and the fusor setup itself
along with all of the operational conditions during fusion and data recording.
Any applicant may be questioned by any number of Neutron club members upon
application and submission of proof. They should be prepared to further
clarify or exhibit knowledge of the data or processes used.

See the strict rules for joining the neutron club at:


And a sample submission at:



The neutron club, as of 8/20/20, will now be separated into two groups.

1. "The Elite Fusioneers" Those fusioneers who have gone on to use fusion to neutron activate a substance and proven they have done it. (This is the key must-have criterion!) Activation will prove that the fusioneer has done more than barely "tickle" a neutron counter and then leave. This elite class fusioneer can also include those who have contributed in new areas of research and development in a manner that furthers or enhances future efforts by others. Most among the "Elite" are very serious fusioneers who stick with the effort and have a decent history of posting and assisting others.

2. "The Fusioneers" Those who have proven they have done fusion. This listing sadly contains a large number of mostly younger people who were only "in it to win it" and immediately left the scene. Fortunately, a decent number in this listing are notable, long time posters and as such have notations by their names representing some special points related to them.

These separate listings are organized by the date order, as much as is possible, of those qualifying under the rules. In some cases the date of original fusion (fusioneer status) is much different from the date that were admitted to the definition of the elite status. Both dates and any special data of merit are to be noted after the name, if known. No person's name can appear in both lists.

This neutron club listing cannot include fusion work done by corporate organizations or
professional people involved in this work for pay or profit unless
the effort is done "on the side" as a personal effort.
i.e. Tom Ligon - Bussard fusion effort

The Neutron Club

These people have operated a neutron producing fusor or fusion system, (normally d-d fusion):
They have shown via rigorous examination, by their peers, that their finished product and data are all in order and certify that they have done fusion.
This represents a significant and signal accomplishment for a single amateur scientist or amateur group under proper supervision.


Elite Fusioneers - most honored

Jon Rosenstiel - Mega neutron mark 10e6 11/02. First to ever do neutron activation 12/17/02. Numerous innovations. - Showed proton recoil
in cloud chamber. - Long time contributor 2001 to date! - Hosted
two gatherings of fusioneers on the west coast at his home and lab. First person to seriously liquid cool his fusor. 3/27/21 - Completed a
record 1 hour fusion run to activate uranium and actually detect
fission debris!!.... A must check out at...
*** 3 star elite member. Should be a master fusioneer for this work!!!

Carl Willis - 2nd person to ever do neutron activation 12/13/03. - Extremely active, long time poster. - Helped all here in so many incalculable
ways with useful data. ***3 star elite

Brian McDermott - 3rd person to ever do neutron activation 4/11/05. Contributed detailed data regularly for a period of time.

Richard Hull - First to ever do Amateur fusion in a fusor 2/6/99 (5x10e4 TIER). - 10e5 neutron mark 8/99. - Fourth to ever do neutron
activation 9/25/05. - Wrote 99.5% of all FAQs. Longest extant poster
1998 - to date. - Hosts a yearly High Energy Amateur Science gathering of fusioneers and a flea market of fusion goods at his lab. Now in its
32nd year. First to posit wall loading over time of deuterium
*** 3 star elite member

Joe Gayo 1/15/19 first to design and make a cube fusor. Joe actually constructed a number of high performing cube systems. Currently
developing pre-amps for neutron proportional detection.
*** 3 star elite member

Mark Rowley 7/21/19 Mark later was the first amateur to do fusion in a linear pinch discharge device 11/24/19. - Mark did activation 7/20.
He has now, 11/20, done more activation work than most any
poster to date. Advanced fusor cooling concepts, Mark has created the offical "movie" on the use of the PEM cell to electrolyze heavy water
to create the demanded deuterium gas. Not enough can be said
about his efforts in this area. Check it out as a FAQ located at....
Mark is a good continuing poster *** 3 star elite poster.

Andrew Seltzman Long time poster and fusioneer. Worked with water cooled grid concepts. Post with new ideas and concepts. Andrew
introduced innovations in grid cooling and ion sources. These were a
big contributions to

Liam David did fusion 7/6/19. Continued with advanced work on a novel feed thru and activated indium on 9/13/20.
Liam is now, 2022, one of our long time, regular posters assisting many new people.

Jim Kovalchick Silver activation 2/15/21. A member of the neutron club since 10/19/15 Long time poster and experimenter. Now placed
among the Elite members. His son, Mike, did fusion in another fusor
a couple of years ahead of his dad.

Finn Hammer - Silver activation 6/17/21. Proved entrance into the neutron club by activation on his first fusor run! This is extremely rare,
and as such, boosts him to the Elite neutron club status. Finn
also has taken the slow road over 3-4 years to make his system and has done a lot of valuable testing and electronics projects with details for
others to follow. A teaching member via the "doing".

Bob Reite - admitted to the fusioneers 9/15/14 -Bob has been a continuous contributor and poster for over 6 years. Bob activated silver in
mid-2021. Bob is currently working with and carrying on his work
with the fusor system formerly owned and operated by long time, now deceased, fusioneer, Doug Coulter.

Luke Herrill - admitted to elite fusioneers with silver activation 12/5/21. Luke has taken his time and over the last 4 years assembled a first
rate fusion system attaining neutron club membership and Elite
status at the same time. This is a rare feat. When he was ready to go, he went all the way!

Matt Gibson - admitted to elite fusioners with silver activation 1/13/22. Matt is extremely active and is currently posting excellent images of
his system and seeking assistance in his upward trajectory into
fusion research and innovation.

Sophie Yang - Chinese fusioneer admitted to elite fusioneers who burst upon the scene with fabulous gear and fusor system that is certainly
one of the best we have seen here in years! She has activated many elements that are difficult for many amateur fusors and proved the
results to satisfaction.

Emma Black - Admitted to the elite fusioneers 11/5/22. First woman in the U.S. to do fusion on this site and become an elite! We have a
complete record as her fusor was built over time. At 40kv activated silver to the point of easy detection with a GM counter.

Anze Ursic - Admitted to the elite neutron club fusioneer membership 5/13/23 Activation of elements

**********************NWNC - Youth Team Effort****************
This is a special group of rotating students at the high school level that continuously
grows and changes over the academic years. They have won many 1st place awards
each year and well over $160,000 in scholarships to advance there members'
education. Thanks to superb mentoring, they are safely guided through the
fusion effort as each group comes on board. All the best to this one of a kind
fusion effort! Like the energizer bunny, they just keep on going and going.....

NWNC Mentors/adult advisors
1. Kim Brown Command Master Chief USCG Retired
2. Berk Nadir Graduate Nuclear Engineering - Purdue University
3. Carl Greninger Operations Program Manager - Microsoft - main poster for his group's activities

This continuing education fusion effort belongs in the elite class amateur fusion effort!

This team endures over the years as new students enter the group and older ones matriculate out to colleges.
A fabulous hands-on effort thanks to the adult advisors involved in keeping everyone safe, teaching good practices along with the scientific method.
Not enough can be said about this fine effort. It is a pity that local active groups like this with adult supervision do not abound. We are blessed that there is at least this one.

What makes this group elite are its adult supervisors and mentors listed above. In this one case, I leave the early group of students listed in the original listing of fusioneers, below.


The Fusioneers - Proved to have achieved fusion

Scott Little 3/17/99 Second amateur fusor ever built
Joe Zambelli - Half mega neutron mark 12/01
Tom Ligon - First cylindrical fusor - (Part of Dr. Bussard's professional effort, but built a private fusor making neutrons 2002)
Michael Li - winner $75k Intel scholarship (fusor)
Mike Amann
Gerardo Meiro - First non-US neutron Club member (Spain), inventor of the "Meiro spiral grid"
Phillip Fostini
Craig Wallace - winner $1.5k Intel 2nd place (Fusor)
Frank Sanns did fusion 2002. Patented plasma electrodes, tremendous effort in maintaining this forum as an admin, posting continuously from
2000 - to date. One of the original "old boys"
Fergus Noble & Henry Hallam - first UK neutron members
Adam Parker - winner of $10k Alabama scholarship in science with his fusor
Mark Langdon
Thiago Olson
Wayne Rodgers
Eric Stroud
Wilfried Heil & Noemi Zudor - Smallest fusor ~3" diameter
Raymond Jimenez
Alex & Ben Haylett - first to use heavy water electrolysis to generate their deuterium gas.
Steven Sesselmann - first Aussie fusion, New Star system design

Utrecht University fusor group, poster is Benjamin Brenny
Group includes: Sander Mann, Dick Abma, Thijs Krijger, Remco Van den
Dungen, Nivard Kagie
Bob Heil
Peninsula College - student group
Ho Yee Hui, Derek Madison, Devon McMinn, Sarah Mangiameli
Chris Milroy, Aaron Stoll, Jeff Zirul
Roman Radtke
Louis Franzel
Taylor Wilson
Thomas Rapp - Also made a linear, beam-on-target fusion device
Tyler Christensen
Ben Bartlett - Attended Intel ISEF 2009
Doug Coulter & Bill Fain - A team effort with a highly successful cylindrical fusor. Doug created his own website regarding his fusion work.
Matthew Honickman
Jason Heidecker
Mark Suppes
Robert Tubbs
Chris Roberts & Adam Behler - University of Utah
Chad Ramey - Smallest fusor
Will Jack
Fusor Project, Netherlands - Martijn Rambonnet, Bent de Lange
Alexander Klotz
Bob Thoma
Adam Ingle
Conrad Farnsworth
Mike Kovalchick
Tanner Oates
Daniel Firth
Michal Racko, Slovakia - supervisor/mentor Michal Stano, PhD.
Jake Hecla
Anthony ODwyer

**********************NWNC - Youth Team Effort****************
This is a special group of rotating students at the high school level that continuosuly
grows and changes over the academic years. They have won many 1st place awards
each year and well over $160,000 in scholarships to advance there members'
education. Thanks to superb mentoring, they are safely guided through the
fusion effort as each group comes on board. All the best to this one of a kind
fusion effort! Like the energizer bunny, they just keep on going and going.....


1. Kaylee O'Neal
2. Krystal Schuh
3. Eriik Snyder
4. Jocelyn McWayne
5. Chase Price
6. Jayce Glenn
7. Tanner Oates

NWNC Mentors/adult advisors
1. Kim Brown Command Master Chief USCG Retired
2. Berk Nadir Graduate Nuclear Engineering - Purdue University
3. Carl Greninger Operations Program Manager - Microsoft - main poster for his group's activities

This team endures over the years as new students enter the group and older ones matriculate out to colleges.
A fabulous hands-on effort thanks to the adult advisors involved in keeping everyone safe, teaching good practices along with the scientific method.


Special recognition to Robert Tubbs as the first "beam on target", (BoT) fusioneer using a custom designed accelerator to do same using an RF plasma ion source. Robert was already in the neutron club using his own fusor a couple of years back.


********************** Virgina Commonwealth University*********************
School of nuclear engineering
The 2014 senior project team has just completed their fusor,
without faculty involvement beyond oversight, and it is fusing!
They sought out and obtained outside funding to make this happen.
Admitted 4/11/14


Jack Puntawong, Thailand admitted 7/29/14
Nick Peskosky admitted 1/10/15
Ryan Catalano admitted 4/10/15
Bern Bareis admitted 4/23/15
Jamie Edwards admitted 6/11/15
Scott Moroch and Jack Rosky admitted 9/1/15
Greg Courville admitteed 2/15/16
Daniel Itkis, Luca Ponzio and Johannes Konrad (team effort). admitted 3/21/16
Zan Chaudhry 9/21/16
Dennis Brown 2/15/17 Long time contributor and poster on Always a helpful poster of some note. He is a real help to many newbies.
Garrett Young 2/20/17 First person to ever exceed 1 million n/s TIER in a 2.75 conflat cross. Quickly hit 2.7 mega n/s!!
Nicholas Pitt 4/27/17
Bernhard Schistad 6/12/17
ERGO Fusion team......Tom Bales, Pedro Pavao, Tomas Pinilla, Kat Cochran, Zeke Andreassen, Gregory Bales. 7/29/17
Steven Haid 8/13/17
Robert Dwyer 11/5/17
Jackson Oswalt 2/1/18
Erik Smith 4/29/18
University of Maryland -Team effort - Scott Moroch, Tim Koeth, "Jimbo" Krutzler, Jay Howson 5/27/18
U. MD update: 1/11/20 Now 20 million n/s of D-D fusion in a team built Cyclotron!! The first Amateur built cyclotron to do fusion. They are also claiming First Amateurs to do fission with cyclotron neutrons!
Enzo Carter 1/29/19
Eduardo and Christiano Machado (father-son team) 10/27/19
Vince Darmancier 12/4/19
Nathan Marshall 5/9/20
Ameen Aydan 9/19/20
Sean Soleyman 7/17/21
Cade Neely 6/15/22
Joe Ballantyne 2/20/23
Rich Gorski 4/20/23
Maxwell Epstein 8/24/23


The following listing is due to the effort of Tom Ligon and represents
those people in the Neutron Club who attained fusion while still in
school! Quite an accomplishment, to be sure.

Michael Li - winner $75k Intel scholarship (fusor), 2003
Craig Wallace - winner $1.5k Intel 2nd place (Fusor)
Adam Parker - winner of $10k Alabama scholarship in science
Thiago Olson - beautiful project, passed muster with state inspectors
Taylor Wilson
Tyler Christensen
Ben Bartlett- Ben attended ISEF 2009
Matthew Honickman
Chad Ramey – Student of Promise Award. Grand Award Georgia State
Engineering and Science fair...Beat out over 600 other exhibits.
Brian McDermott
Raymond Jimenez
Will Jack - science fair winner with fusor
Conrad Farnsworth
Michal Racko - Supervisor Michal Stano PhD.
Ryan Catalano
Charles Vorbach admitted 4/16/16
Kuba and Noah Anglin admitted 4/26/16
Sam_Samidi_Pugh 10/14/17
Matthew Lallinger 12/27/17
Jackson Oswalt 2/1/18 -
I will attempt to keep this listing up dated should future
high school students be inducted into the Neutron Club.


While most of the above have used the particle colliding, inertial
electrostatic confinement, "Farnsworth fusor" device, this list is
not limited to this form of fusion. Any form of actual AMATEUR,
"hands-on", experimental,fusion research effort and its success
will be logged here.

It must be realized that this list is not regularly purged based on
moribund activity. It is, instead, assembled to bear witness to any
and all who have put forth some fusion related effort in the past or
are working at present in the effort. Some of the folks on this list
have long ago departed or ceased work in their fusion quest.

Richard Hull


Posted: Tue May 01, 2007 11:05 am
by Paul_Schatzkin
I think these "rules" are good ones, Richard, and I commend you for your diligent maintenance of this list. As you say, it's a true testament to the measure of interest in this subject around the world.

Thanks for you tireless efforts.



Posted: Thu Oct 29, 2020 7:36 pm
by Richard Hull
Due to the new stringent requirements to be placed in the "plasma Club", as of November 2020, not one application has been received. Is this a good thing? I think so.

The plasma club was originally created to act as a "holding pen" indicating a significant accomplishment for what was hoped to become future fusioneers. Unfortunately, it turned out to be, in large part, a landing zone for rather feckless DIY folks. Most were drawn in by easy access to some form of fame for having their name in a listing of successful "doers" on a fusion site. We have determined to no longer reward folks with a mangled wire internal electrode held within an inverted peanut butter jar with an ill-defined glow in it on our fusion site.

Naturally, we applaud any and all efforts to make a crude demo plasma device and will continue to gladly accept all images and efforts taken in this direction. Nothing has changed in this respect.

Currently, as configured, the plasma club is a haven of recognition and reward for those bold enough to be there. Being there is an honor and allows any and all there, "breathing space" and time to take the final critical steps towards actually doing fusion, if they so wish.

I imagine the plasma club may remain moribund and only pick up an occasional soul. It costs too much in physical effort, the doing, cash expenditure, and scrounging to wind up there and remain there for long. 80% of the work for becoming a full neutron club member is already done, if someone succeeds in being admitted there! All names of most plasma club members will continue to be purged from that list once they do fusion and are inducted into the neutron club. (Our highest honor) I would imagine the future names in the plasma club will be very few. Perhaps, the plasma club will even remain empty most of the time due to a much deserved promotion, to the neutron club, of those already lauded and recognized in the plasma club who make the extra 20% effort.

Richard Hull


Posted: Sun Nov 01, 2020 9:45 pm
by Bob Reite
I suspect that under the new plasma club rules that a new plasma club member will shortly move on to fusion and thus be purged from the plasma listing. When I set out to build my system, I did not want to have to build it twice, so I designed it from the beginning to be a fusion capable device. I achieved my first plasma on July 29, and my first fusion on Sept 12 of the same year, in less than two months.


Posted: Mon Nov 02, 2020 12:59 am
by Richard Hull
Bob, let's face it. We're old, if we don't do it while it is fresh in our minds, we forget. Plus, we are overloaded with skill sets acquired over a life time and have some disposable income, fabulous junk boxes and no small number of machine tools. The youth in many instances tends to be drawn to this and that thing that seems fun and interesting, but tend to have short attention spans, limited hands-on skills and rarely any money. As always, the best among us perseveres. Be we youthful or fossils, it takes the right stuff, verve and the hands-on imperative to see a major endeavor like this through to the end goal.

Richard Hull


Posted: Mon Nov 02, 2020 4:57 am
by Dennis P Brown
This is, getting down to the basics, a site created to encourage someone to do actual fusion via a fusor (the easiest device.) As such, anyone wanting to do this at some point now has an achievable but still straight forward intermediate step - they must build a real science based device that proves they are serious. Achieving this status is very doable and certainly get's one closer to a real fusor but both at a far lower cost and without the need for a potentially lethal power supply.So besides earning that status they get to prove their mettle by building a real scientific instrument that while not all that difficult (but does require purchases of real equipment), still requires enough effort to reward a person that truly is interested and dedicated towards the goal this site was create for.


Posted: Tue Jun 08, 2021 2:08 am
by Richard Hull
Never post in any reply any images in this form. Textual replies in this forum must deal in a most general way with the content or construction of the forum. Never make a claim of success in this forum.

I erased the image posted here today. Images are for images du jour or any other forum but this one.

Richard Hull


Posted: Wed May 31, 2023 1:03 pm
by Richard Hull
We now have a decent list of plasma club folks who met the new extreme rules to join this group of real achievers devoted to studying plasma in vacuums and reduced pressures. This is a stepping stone to doing fusion at the amateur level.

Richard Hull