Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

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John Fenley
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Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by John Fenley »

I thought I'd start a new topic for theory and construction updates about the new type of reactor I am working on.

The reactor is based on an inverted cyclotron design. Instead of each ion circling a shared central point, each ion in this device is on it's own cyclotron trajectory that intersects a shared central focus region. Arrival at this focus region happens simultaneously for all ions, and forms a momentary dense plasma similar to what is produced in Inertial Confinement Fusion.

Unlike traditional Inertial Confinement Fusion, the presence of a uniform magnetic field curves all ions that did not fuse around to collide again once every period. End containment would be accomplished via positively charged plates, effectively creating a Penning trap. Because Deuterium and Tritium have different cyclotron frequencies, only Deuterium fuel would be used.

Several papers by DC Barnes, and RA Nebel have explored similar concepts, but have not examined this arrangement specifically. Crucially the paper "Beyond the Brillouin Limit with the Penning Fusion Experiment" mentioned:
Penning traps have exhibited remarkable confinement of non-neutral plasmas. It is natural to ask whether such excellent confinement might be useful for controlled thermonuclear fusion. One fundamental difficulty is the density limit associated with un-neutralized space charge.

Due to the charge non-neutrality of these plasmas, the uniform densities attainable in static traps are limited, the maximum value being the Brillouin limit.

n=B^2/2umc^2

where B is the magnetic induction, u the permeability of free space, m the mass of confined particles and c the speed of light.

It was suggested recently that the local density might exceed n in a strongly nonequilibrium plasma. This local concentration may occur either in space or time.
Barns and Nebel went on to examine spatial focusing, referencing gridded Hirsch fusors, and non-gridded ion focus designs, but did not examine concentrations that varied over time.

The device I'm attempting to build will address this glaring omission.


My website http://www.DDproFusion.com has an early simulation video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RT6nvmN7GB0), and a link to the issued patent on a fusion device using this method. http://www.ddprofusion.com/US10354761.pdf

A more recent, but unfinished simulation, created with help from a fellow named Darrell Taylor, is available at http://www.ddprofusion.com/simulation/index.html

I have been acquiring equipment in order to begin construction of the prototype. I recently attended HEAS 2021, and purchased some much needed vacuum equipment, as well as other useful items. The most recent acquisition is the 35,000 pound MRI magnet that will be used to create the uniform field, which is currently sitting in my facility in Arkansas.

Here are a few of the many previous discussions of this device:

Introduction on this forum:
viewtopic.php?t=10093
Discussion of similarity to another proposed device:
viewtopic.php?t=11281

Question about focusing analysis in relation to the Liouville theorem:
https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=25222442

Reddit patent announcement:
https://www.reddit.com/r/fusion/comment ... on_patent/
Reddit funding announcement:
https://www.reddit.com/r/fusion/comment ... g_secured/

Answers to some Frequently asked questions:

Yes, I've read Rider's thesis about non-equilibrium fusion. The ions in my device have a thermal energy distribution.

It is similar, but not the same as MIGMA. Migma is not periodic, and suffers from collisions outside the focus region due to ions traveling in different directions through the same space at the same time. MIGMA also does not continue to confine ions after non-fusion collisions.
John Fenley
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by John Fenley »

I just got back to my warehouse, and thought I'd share a picture and video my dad took of the giant MRI magnet being unloaded a few days ago.

https://youtu.be/NAkVpa5zEhA

The unit is a Hitachi mrp-7000 with a 0.3T permanent magnet. In this field, Deuterium will have a cyclotron frequency of about 2.3Mhz.

I've got several experiments I want to try. First I'll build a normal demo fusor out of non-ferrous materials. This will help me to make sure my various vacuum pumps, power supplies, and detectors are working correctly.

Then I want to try using a single wire aligned with the magnetic field as the central electrode. The goal here is to see if I can cause something like an accretion ring to form around it.

Next, I'll be building the penning trap electrodes, and trying to trap and detect ions in a static trap.

The last experiment is the prototype. I'll be trying to create the orbiting population from my simulation.
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Richard Hull
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by Richard Hull »

Wow! Is it yours? Is it borrowed?

Richard Hull
Progress may have been a good thing once, but it just went on too long. - Yogi Berra
Fusion is the energy of the future....and it always will be
Retired now...Doing only what I want and not what I should...every day is a saturday.
RobertMendelsohn
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by RobertMendelsohn »

I'm very excited to see the results of this! I think exceedingly few on Fusor.net have experimented with magnetically confined fusion, this should be very interesting, bravo.
Dan Knapp
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by Dan Knapp »

John, In regard to your planned Penning trap experiment, I suggest that you look at https://arxiv.org/abs/2004.13103 to see our experience with a permanent magnet Penning trap fusion device.
John Fenley
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by John Fenley »

Richard Hull wrote: Wed Feb 16, 2022 2:31 am Wow! Is it yours? Is it borrowed?
I was able to purchase the MRI machine, so I'm not bound by any restrictions on what I can do to it. I doubt any medical company would let me do some of the things I have planned :)
RobertMendelsohn wrote: Wed Feb 16, 2022 12:16 pm I'm very excited to see the results of this! I think exceedingly few on Fusor.net have experimented with magnetically confined fusion, this should be very interesting, bravo.
I started thinking about how interesting it could be, and noticed that there aren't many videos of people playing with MRI machines online. I decided to try to help fund the project, and raise awareness of my reactor design, by making a youtube channel where I explore the effects of high magnetic fields on different objects. Something like the Hydraulic press channel or the waterjet channel. It's a work in progress, and we'll need to build up a catalog of videos before they get too much attention, or someone else with better editing skills and a larger following will rip us off before we can get it up and running.

A few hours ago we made a video of my initial contact with the magnet that was very exciting.
https://youtu.be/oZjlhYST0ks
Dan Knapp wrote: Wed Feb 16, 2022 1:06 pm John, In regard to your planned Penning trap experiment, I suggest that you look at https://arxiv.org/abs/2004.13103 to see our experience with a permanent magnet Penning trap fusion device.
I'm so glad to make your acquaintance! I would love to include you and others in this project, and to use this opportunity to push the field forward if I can. It's surprising to me that more MRI magnets aren't making their way into research like this. They are surprisingly cheap (comparatively) and the field uniformity is much higher than I could hope to achieve myself.
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Dennis P Brown
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by Dennis P Brown »

A few points: first, please avoid quoting people. Best just to answer their questions.

Second and more importantly, MRI magnets have killed people by nearby metal objects hitting/pinning people. Do be careful.

Finally, what power supply hook up: 240, or 480 and what will the amp load be? I'd think the electric bill would be impressive!
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Joe Gayo
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by Joe Gayo »

@Dennis I think this is a permanent magnet MRI (that's why the field is vertical)

@John What is your plan for converting this to a "mirror" configuration (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_mirror)? With a uniform field, the ion will spiral, but it will also travel along the field axis and not reflect like your patent shows.
John Fenley
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by John Fenley »

The end confinement will be via positively charged plates at the top and bottom. I anticipate that the plasma will be strongly non-neutral, so I'm basically ignoring electrons. I'm really not sure how the electrons are going to act and what effect they might have on this type of device. More research is required.
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Joe Gayo
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by Joe Gayo »

Ok, I see that now in your patent.

I'm sure you know about the Beta and charge-space challenges a non-neutral device will have.
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Richard Hull
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by Richard Hull »

Joe notes this is a very weak permanent magnet of only .3 tesla or 3000 gauss. The beauty is a controlled and even field. One can easily, for under $20 buy a .5T surface field N55, NdFeB magnet. It is the permanent, no input energy, smooth, even field region at high strength that is difficult to come by. Large volume and area smooth fields are a real art.

Richard Hull
Progress may have been a good thing once, but it just went on too long. - Yogi Berra
Fusion is the energy of the future....and it always will be
Retired now...Doing only what I want and not what I should...every day is a saturday.
John Fenley
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by John Fenley »

The space charge will briefly be thousands of times greater than this (relatively weak) magnetic field could contain statically.

The easiest way to start my simulations is to set the initial condition to a very dense cylindrical cloud at the correct energy, which expands rapidly in a coulomb explosion. The products of this explosion then gently curve around to become the implosion for the next period.

There may be some instabilities because the outer ions could briefly accelerate more rapidly than the inner ones. If it turns out to be a problem, I have a couple of ideas about how to address it.

Edit:
I'm reading some papers about beta and space charge right now, and I'm not sure I was answering the right question. I'm still very new to a lot of this. Thank you for pointing me toward some useful information.
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Dennis P Brown
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by Dennis P Brown »

Curious to know how you will create a highly ionized plasma at the center to start the process. Also, wondering what ion energy will still allow containment (i.e. maintain a circular radius) and how you will prevent these ions from spiraling outward. Finally, what prevents the ions from moving towards the magnet poles?
John Fenley
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by John Fenley »

My best easy guess about creating the ionized plasma at the focus, is to start with a deep vacuum of Deuterium, and pulse an electron beam down the center of the device at the cyclotron frequency to both create the initial ions, and heat ions that happen to be there at the right time.

I have a couple other ideas if that doesn't work.

When looking at Deuterium in the lower range for fusion below about 30kev, a 10 inch diameter chamber should be plenty to let the ions travel around their full circular path in my magnet without hitting the walls. I plan to make my chamber even bigger than that so that ions moving much faster than average can still do a full orbit.

They shouldn't spiral, but should stay on their circular orbits until they have a collision. Hopefully most collisions will be at the focus, because any collisions outside the focus will put those ions on trajectories that no longer pass through the focus at the correct time.

End containment will be via charged plates at the top and bottom to create a penning trap.
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Dennis P Brown
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by Dennis P Brown »

Well, hope everything works. You are certainly doing an extremely interesting project and I realize that between the problems known, and unknown it will take time. But do keep us posted since it is a very interesting idea. Do consider detectors and calibration issues - that will become important once your unit is operating.
John Fenley
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by John Fenley »

Just wanted to post an update... I got robbed on Saturday, and they took all the stuff I bought at HEAS a few months ago.
I'm not even sure what to do... If people see these for sale somewhere please let me know.
I've attached a picture I took of the stuff on it's shelf a few months ago, and a picture of the shelf as I found it on Sunday after the theft...
They cut the handles off my shipping containers, and I doubt the police will do anything... this is like the 20th time I've been robbed here.
I don't have footage of this theft because my security system was in one of the containers they broke into and they stole it too...

This sets me back quite a bit. They also got the E/M demonstrator I bought from sci supply and can be seen on my web page at www.DDproFusion.com

Please, if anyone sees these for sale on an auction site anywhere let me know!
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Richard Hull
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by Richard Hull »

My goodness! Where do you live? "This is like the 20th time I've been robbed here." I think I would leave "here" wherever "here" is...

I have a friend in the Philadelphia area. He had two shipping container storage units with all of his business tools and material. He came to collect some tools and steel to do a job and both units were gutted not one item remained, even the steel construction materials.

That all in one pump station was a real gem. I almost bought that from Warren myself, but opted for a duplicate of my current turbo pump as a spare at last year's HEAS. I wish I had bought one of those giant PMT scintillator arrays from my friend Michael Griffin at HEAS but they went fast!

I am glad I live where I do.

I am sorry for your loss, I will keep an eye out. some of the stuff stolen might just be trashed if they are too stupid to figure out what they stole. That pump station may wind up at a local small automotive air conditioner repair shop to its ruination. (or at least the stripped off roughing pump will.)

Richard Hull
Progress may have been a good thing once, but it just went on too long. - Yogi Berra
Fusion is the energy of the future....and it always will be
Retired now...Doing only what I want and not what I should...every day is a saturday.
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Dennis P Brown
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by Dennis P Brown »

Just terrible! If it was on your home property the house insurance might cover it - especially if you have documents like receipts and/or photo's. Do have a police report.
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Liam David
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Re: Deuterium-Deuterium Periodically Returning Orbit Fusion

Post by Liam David »

Damn, that really bites. If anything shows up on Ebay, someone here will likely see it.
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