Solid state bombardment fusion

It may be difficult to separate "theory" from "application," but let''s see if this helps facilitate the discussion.
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Richard Hull
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Solid state bombardment fusion

Post by Richard Hull » Tue Oct 30, 2001 4:06 pm

Thanks to my friend and fellow fusioneer Scott Little, I am in possesion of a paper from the proceedings of the ICCF-7. This is the International Cold Fusion Conference #7 which was held in Vancover BC in Canada. These conferences have never gone away as a number of scientists are still slugging it out trying to get data on this curious and tenuous effect.

In this paper, six Japanese authors at the laboratory for nuclear science at Tohuku University give an account of fusion wherein they load a paladium foil electrolytically with deuterons via the classic CF methodology and then bombard, invacuo, the foil as a target with a deuteron beam.
The result is classic hot fusion at a rate far exceeding all calculations. Add to this the fact that the fusion began at only 2kv deuteron beam energy and you can see that something boosted production here. The most they ever used was 10kev deuteron beams.

This is not CF, but hot fusion where half the deutrons or target deuterons were part of the solid state target's metal lattice.

They also, in the past, have loaded and achieved fusion in Titanium and Ytterbium.

They attempt to parameterize the enhanced yield by invisioning a "screening potential" which reduces the coulomb barrier between two deuterons. These nuclear reactions are esentially occuring at room temperature.

The title of the paper was:
Anomalously enhanced D(d,p)T reaction in Pd and PdO Observed at Very Low Bombarding Energies.
by J. Kasagi, H. Yuki, T. Itoh, N. Kasajima, T. Ohtsuki and A.G. Lipson

Hot fusion, cold fusion, warm fusion and lukewarm fusion are all targets of current investigation, especially with nature apparently doing all as needed.

I feel that somehow we will see the investigation of these phenomena slowly creep insidiously back into the main stream of research and suddenly have a win, with all scientists embracing the findings as if they never shunned the topic before and were "on board" all along.

Arthur C. Clarke probably said it best about cold fusion.... In the beginning the authorities would say, "BAH! It is junk science!" As more evidence piles up, they would say, "It is curious, but not reproducable". Then, as the process is refined they would say, "the results are interesting and should be studied further". Finally when there is a string of reproducable results, they would say, "I knew there was something there all along". When it becomes a useful product they would say, "I thought of that first years ago!"

Richrd Hull
Progress may have been a good thing once, but it just went on too long. - Yogi Berra
Fusion is the energy of the future....and it always will be
Retired now...Doing only what I want and not what I should...every day is a saturday.

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Re: Solid state bombardment fusion

Post by guest » Wed Oct 31, 2001 1:23 am

Wow, D-D fusion begins at only 2kev! That really is something and I'm surprised more people in the high energy community aren't talking about it. The apparatus for the experiment doesn't sound overwhelmingly complicated, maybe in the range of amateurs.
I'm sure these people are continuing their research after such compelling results? I'd like to look into that further one day. Sounds like a real neat machine to make, and like the fusor, research bed is fertile, maybe even more so than the fusor. I will definately try to locate more info on this as time lets me. Right now it's all paperwork and redtape with college applications.

Adam Parker

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Re: Solid state bombardment fusion

Post by Tom Dressel » Wed Oct 31, 2001 2:47 am

Why not just mount a deuterium loaded ball of paladium in the center of the inner grid of an IEC device?

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Re: Solid state bombardment fusion

Post by Richard Hull » Wed Oct 31, 2001 3:07 pm

This is a good idea about the sphere. However, it would have to be a foil or hollow sphere. The loading might better be done first and then the foil spread over a spherical frame. Paladium in 1000 ounce units is currently 380.00/ounce I found out that one ounce bars are about $440.00 each currently. So this is not junk metal. Seven to ten months ago, it was over $1000.00/ounce. Finished forms of paladium foil, wire, etc. can double the per ounce price. i.e. Paladium foil 1 inch by 1 inch square, 4 mils thick is $75.00 (Alfa-Aesar quote) and weighs in at .75 grams. with 31.1 grams/troy ounce that computes a total of 41.46 of these foils in an ounce and at $75.00/foil that makes the fabricated 4 mil foil $3,109.99 per ounce.

As an element collector, I know the fabrication charges can run between 50% to 10,000% more than the per ounce weight of the bulk product.

A real thin palladium foil .0005 inch thick in 1 inch by 1 inch would produce a one ounce foil price of $356,980.86!!

So a solid ball of cast palladium 1 inch in diameter weighing ~10 ounces would be cheaper than a foil sphere of the same size .0005" thick.

Finally, the paper's authors noted that they used a high current deuteron ion gun in their linear system.

Richard Hull
Progress may have been a good thing once, but it just went on too long. - Yogi Berra
Fusion is the energy of the future....and it always will be
Retired now...Doing only what I want and not what I should...every day is a saturday.

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Re: Solid state bombardment fusion

Post by Tom Dressel » Wed Oct 31, 2001 3:18 pm

Why would it have to be a hollow sphere, wouldn't a small solid sphere work? Isn't the loading of paladium a total volume thing, but the fusion takes place only within the first few microns of the surface any way?

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Re: Solid state bombardment fusion

Post by Richard Hull » Wed Oct 31, 2001 3:38 pm

Correct, but the larger the area the more fusion, neutrons, tritium and energy out.

Richard Hull
Progress may have been a good thing once, but it just went on too long. - Yogi Berra
Fusion is the energy of the future....and it always will be
Retired now...Doing only what I want and not what I should...every day is a saturday.

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Re: Solid state bombardment fusion

Post by guest » Wed Oct 31, 2001 5:20 pm

So really the best solution would be thin palladium wire mushed up into a cotton ball or Brillo-Pad type arrangement.

One question: Can anybody point me to information on the loading of palladium? What exactly goes on there?

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Re: Solid state bombardment fusion

Post by Tom Dressel » Wed Oct 31, 2001 7:32 pm

As I understand it, the deuterium loading takes place when the palladium is placed in an electrolysis bath, usually containing a lithium salt, and D20. At relatively low voltages, with the palladium as the cathode the deuterium is driven into the metallic lattice of the palladium and the oxygen just bubbles off at the anode. As I recall the loading process creates tremendous internal stresses in the palladium with a several percent increase in the actual volume of the metal.

Once the palladium is loaded, continued application of low voltages drives more deuterium into the palladium matrix at a density high enough to allow fusion at essentially room temp.

The whole process actually is a lot more straight forward than the high voltage, high vacuum IEC fusor experiments. The problem is that it takes precise attention to detail to do the calorimetery correctly, and literature is replete with failed attemps to replicate experiments.

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Re: Solid state bombardment fusion

Post by Richard Hull » Wed Oct 31, 2001 8:27 pm

Tom gives sage advice here. The CF literature is a mix of no extra power seen to 300% over input power outputs. Of late, more sucesses are claimed as the calorimetry tightens up and the the claims have also been, for the most part, more modest.

A lot of the initial dabblers; both the committed, foaming mouth debunkers and the propeller headed cold fusion freaks have left the field. This has left a more or less underfunded, labor of love, committed scientists and experimenters to quietly and relentlessly persue the effect. The overall indicator is that there is an effect, but subtle and not understood in spite of a number of theories advanced to explain the results.

Ya' just know that, if real, the effect is gonna' be out of the ball park of normal modus operandi and thought.... Something that, when seen for what it is, will show the littleness and narrowness of man's efforts, conquered by luck or nearly devine insight.

All that will be required is a trained, scientific person with good imagination, wide open eyes and mind, plus, some devine guidance....OR....some misguided doltish sluggard tripping over his electrolytic cell's leads and the palladum falling into his dog's food bowl and instantly reacting with one of its components to create the new future of energy with the release of ten thousand joules of excess heat! Lady luck is always tapping idiots on the shoulders too, remember.

Richard Hull
Progress may have been a good thing once, but it just went on too long. - Yogi Berra
Fusion is the energy of the future....and it always will be
Retired now...Doing only what I want and not what I should...every day is a saturday.

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Re: Solid state bombardment fusion

Post by teslapark » Wed Oct 31, 2001 10:54 pm

Looks like buying Paladium is above most amateurs' pocket books. Titanium and Ytterbium may be the next best things. Titanium seems somewhat cheap coming in at about $5 per kilogram in large quanitites, probably a little more for the small sizes.
Ytterbium, a rare earth, will probably leave you worse off than you were before as it comes in at about $1600 per kilogram. That means that poor and unlucky amateurs will probably have to stick with Titanium if they want to break into CF stuff. A hollow sphere would work, but foil is probably the best way to go as far as ease of loading, working on goes. The foil could be wrapped tightly over a spherical form of the proper size.

Fusor operation would differ from this in several ways. The mean free path in the chamber would not have to be as great as the is no need for ion circulation. Deuteron current would probably need to be high and not having to worry about burning up a wire grid could be a plus. It looks like the device would still suffer from too few deuterons falling through a full potential well. There are of course, a few ways one could try to lessen the problem.
I don't even know though how well Titanium would work in place of Paladium. Such a machine might have a more stable neutron output than a fusor though.

Adam Parker

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